An Introduction into English History

from the Roman Invasions to Queen Elizabeth II

Romans

Saxons

Middle Ages

Tudors

Stuarts

Georgians

Victorians

1901-1945

Elizabeth II

 

Legende:


1st books

religious event
or person



King or Queen



battle

Maps


treaty, law, publ

Early England

Date

Who ...

... did what?

4600 b.c. tribal Kings first clear proof of Iron Age Kings

The Romans in Britain (700 b.c. - a.d. 383)

Date

Who ...

... did what?

Iron Age 600 bc Celts

- already trading with the Roman Empire (sold: lead, tin, gold, wheat, cattle, hunting dogs, pearls, slaves)
- blue tattoos from dye called "woad"
- believed in many gods and may have sacrificed not only animals but also humans by druids and priests

55 bc Roman fleet - off British coast
54 bc Julius Caesar - lands in Britain
ad 43 Claudius - invades Britain and conquers most parts of England within 4 years,
ad 60
Iceni (led by Boudicca)

- tribe revolt defeated after they burned the Roman cities of Colchester, St Albans & London;
- destruction of a whole legion
- The Brigantes tribe conquered
- Wales conquered, many forts built
- existing tribes: Brigantes, Coritani, Ordorvices, Catuvellauni, Trinovantes, Dumnonii, Atrebates, Cantriaci, Iceni

ad 60 Agricola - becomes Governor and marches into Caledonia and defeats Caledonians under local Chieftain Calgacus at the Battle of Mons Graupius
- Roman towns built at Lincoln and Gloucester (and improved fortifications at Chester and York)
ad 84

Romans

- first invasions of Scotland,
- Romans won some battles but could not conquer Scotland

- 1 legion = 10 cohorts = 60 centuries = 4800 soldiers
- 1 cohort = 6 centuries = about 480 soldiers
- 1 century = 80 soldiers
- per century 1 centurion + 1 standard bearer

ad 100   - Scotland abandoned
ad 122 Emperor Hadrian - visits Britain and starts building the Hadrian's Wall
ad 140 Romans (Antonius) - advance into Scotland again
- build the Antonine wall North of the Hadrian's wall
ad 150   - Rebellions in the North defeated
- Antonine Wall abandoned
- Hadrian's Wall overrun by Scottish tribes and wide destruction of forts
a 200 Romans

- rebuilt Hadrian's wall and attack Scotland
- Scots surrender
- Britain devided into 2 provinces

ad 250 Saxon Pirates - raid the south and the North coasts
- Britain devided into 4 provinces
ad 300 Emperor Constantinius - attacks Scotland
ad 313 Christianity - accepted throughout the Roman Empire
ad 350 Irish, Scots & Saxons

Count Theodosius
- raid Britain
- legions on Hadrian's wall defeated
- clears invaders from Britain and rebuilds the wall
- Hadrian's wall overrun again and this time not rebuild
ad 400 Roman troops - begin to leave Britain
ad 410 - British towns told to protect themselves from new invaders
ad 410 - British towns told to protect themselves from new invaders
what's left of them? inventions, materials, food, plants - floor heating, hygiene, roads, forts, milestones, laws
- lead pipes, roof tiles,
- cats
- cabbages, carrots, peas, cherries, plums
- stinging nettles, pansies, poppies, roses
  January - Janus = Roman god of the gateways, could look both ways at once because of his two faces
  February - named after the Roman festival of Februa
  March - named after Mars = Roman god of war
  April - after Latin word aperire = to open, because of the unfolding of buds and blossom in spring
  May - named after Maia, the Roman mother goddes
  June - named after Juno, wife of Jupiter, King of the Roman gods
  July - named after Julius Caesar, who decided that the year should begin in January. Until then it had begun in March.
  August - named after Roman Emperor Augustus
  September - originally the 7th month, from Latin septem = 7
  October - originally the 8th month, from Latin octo = 8
  November - originally the 9th month, from Latin novem = 9
 

December

- originally the 10th month, from Latin decem = 10

The Saxons and the Normans (383 - 1272)

Date

Who ...

... did what?

400

Romans
Saxons
St Patrick

- leave Britain

- increasingly raid Britain

- goes to Ireland

-> 534 Cerdic

 

534-560 Cynric

- son of Cerdic

563 St Columba(n)

- an ex-royal Christian missionary from Ireland came to Britain via Islay/Jura/Colonsay, settled on Iona from where he could not see Ireland anymore

560-591 Ceatvlin

- son off Cynric

591-597 Ceolric

 

597 St Augustine - was sent to Britain by the Pope Gregory from Rome
- he converted the King Ethelbert, the Saxon King of Kent
597-611 Ceowulf - brother of Ceolric
600

the 7 Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms

Britons

- Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex, Kent (most important around 600), Sussex, Wessex (growing more and more important towards 800)
- West Country (Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Sommerset), Wales, Cumbria, Scotland
611-643 Cynegils

- son of Ceolric

625 Sutton Hoo ship burial

 

634

Aidan from Iona - set up a monastery Lindisfarne
643-674 Cenwalh

- son of Cynegils

664 Spread of Christianity,
Synod of Whitby

- Celtic Christians followed Columban from Ireland,
- southern Christians followed St Augustine from Rom;
- Whitby (in Yorkshire) was to settle the many arguments and resulted in the unification into the Roman Catholic Church

674-676 Aescwine  
676-685 Centwine - son of Cynegils
685-688 Caedwalla  
688-726 Ine  
726-740 Ethelheard  
700 Offa, King of Mercia - Viking raids begin
789 first Viking raiders land near Weymouth, Dorset

- Vikings do little harm, but came back later with more raiders and attacked Lindisfarne, Jarrow (stealing cattle, killing monks, selling captives as slaves elsewhere)

802-839 Egbert

 

839-855 Aethelwulf

- son of Egbert,
- A. had 4 sons himself

851 Vikings

- almost annual raids
- a fleet 350 long ships attacked South England and,
- for the 1st time, they spent the Winter in Kent

855-860 Aethelbald

- son of Aethelwulf

860-866 Aethelbert

- son of Aethelwulf

866-871 Aethelred

- son of Aethelwulf

871-899 Alfred the Great of Wessex - son of Aethelwulf
- born 849
- buried in Winchester (Statue)
- Vikings settle in England
- Danes defeated
- King Alfred of Wessex defeated Danish Gunthrum in 878 at Battle of Edington near Chippenham resulting in the:
- Peace of Wedmore (Danelaw)
- Danes conquer Normandy
899-924 King Edward the Elder

- born 870
- crowned Kingston upon Thames
- buried in Winchester
- conquest of the Danelaw

924-939 King Athelstan - son of Edward the Elder (1st mar.)
- born 895
- crowned in Kingston upon Thames
- buried in Malmesbury
- conquers Southern Scotland
939-946
Kings Edmund I the Elder

- son of Edward the Elder (3rd mar.)
- born 922
- crowned in Kingston upon Thames
- buried in Glastonbury
- Defeat of Danes raiding from Ireland
- brought 5 towns of Danelaw back to obidience (Derby, Leicester, Lincoln. Nottingham, Stamford)

946-955 Eadred,

- brother of Edward
- born 925
- crowned in Kingston upon Thames
- buried in Winchester

955-959 Eadwig (Edwy) - brother of Edgar
- born 942
- crowned in Kingston upon Thames
- died in Gloucester
  Eric Bloodaxe - last Viking King of York

- Northumbria conquered
959-975 Edgar

Archbishop of Canterbury

- born 945
- crowned Bath
- buried Glastonbury
- the first coronation

 

975-978 Edward the Martyr - son of Edgar (1st mar.)
- born 963
- crowned in Kingston upon Thames
- buried Wareham, re-buried Shaftesbury
978-1016 Ethelred the "ill-advised" or 'unready'

- born 968
- crowned in Kingston upon Thames
- buried St Paul's
- Danish raids begin again,
- Danegeld (paid in order to make the Danes go away)
- 1013 fled to Normandy after Mercian Danes attacked
- 1015 back after Danish King Sweyn died in 1014

IV-XI 1016

Edmund Ironside

- son of Ethelred Unready
. (1st mar., 3rd kid, 3rd son out of 11!)
- born 993
- crowned St. Pauls
- buried Göastonbury
- Peace between Danes and England




1016-1035
Sweyn Forkbeard
died 1014 >

Cnut (Canute)

- son of Harald Bluetooth &
- father of Canute = father of Harold I & Hardecanute

- 1st Haouse of Denmark
- son of Sweyn
- born 995
- crowned St Pauls
- buried Winchester

1035/7-1040 Harold I Harefoot

- son of Cnut (1st mar.)
- born 1017
- crowned in Oxford
- buried Westminster, re-buried Southwark

1040-1042 Hardecanute

- son of Cnut (2nd mar., wife of Ethelread Unready)
- born 1018
- crowned Canterbury
- buried Winchester

1042-1066 Edward the Confessor vs.
Harold of Norway

- son of Ethelred Unready
- born 1004
- crowned Westminster
- buried Westminster
- Westminster Abbey begun
- Battle of Stamford Bridge

I-X/1066 Harold II

- House of Godwin
- son of Gytha = son of Torkils = son of Thyra = son of Harald Bluetooth (like Sweyn)
- born 1022
- crowned Westminster
- buried near Hastings, re-buried Waltham Abbey

01-10/ 1066 Harold vs. Norman William I. = W. the Conquerer - Appearance of the Haley Comet
- Oct. 14th Battle of Hastings, Harold killed, army fled, William marched into London burning and destroying everything on the way, London surrendered
  4 Norman Kings Patrons of the Church they all founded some...
Oct. 1066-1087

William the Conquerer,

 

Hereward the Wake

- born 1028
- crowned Westminster
- buried Caen
- married daughter of Edgar Atheling = 6th desc. of Alfred the Great
- father of William Rufus and Henry I
- many castles built (Tower of London 1087)
- opposes William in the open fen country

1085++ Domesday Book
(= the book of the Day of Judgement)

William send Copmmissioners into every corner of his country to evaluate the areas's economic potential with regard to how much tax can be raised from it

- Who holds the land?
- How many ploughs are there?
- How much land is good for growing crops?
- How much land is just wasteland?
- How much is the land worth?

1087-1100 William II Rufus
(son of William I)

- born 1056
- crowned Westminster
- buried Winchester
- Jerusalem captured by the Turks

1096 Peter the hermit

- led the First Crusade

1100-1135 Henry I
(son of William I)

- born 1070
- crowned Westminster
- buried Reading
- strong rule
- wreck of the White Ship, Henry's son William drowned

1135-1154 Stephen
(nephew of Henry I)

- born 1104
- crowned Westminster
- buried Faversham
- fight for control of the throne with his cousin Matilda (daughter of Henry I)
- barons started to build strong castles

- Second Crusade failed to capture Damascus

1167

- Oxford Uni founded

1150 The Plantagenets

 

1170  

England begins to colonize Ireland

1154-1189

Henry II marries Eleonore of Aquitaine

 

 

 

- born 1133
- crowned Westminster
- buried Fontevraud
- grandson of Henry I,
- son of Matilda + Geoffrey of Anjou
- new French land added to the english possesion
- ruled the biggest empire ever: England, Wales, Ireland, Normandy, Anjou, Brittany, Acquitaine
- new law courts, reconstruction of legal system

- quarrel with his Chancellor Thomas Becket = Archbishop of Canterbury:
Rights of Church vs Powers of the State
- Henry had Becket murdered in his own Cathedral

- later he quarrelled with Eleonor and his sons
- his last days he spend in Civil War,
- his death preventing the empire from near collapse

1189-1199 Richard I Lionheart,
Saladin Sultan of Egypt

- born 1157
- crowned Westminster
- buried Fontevraud
- Third Crusade (attanded by King Richie)
- Acre captured, Battle of Arsouf, Richard captured in Austria
- died fighting in France a few years later

1199-1216

John Lackland

- born 1167
- crowned Westminster
- buried Worcester
- War with France
- Loss of Normandy (1204)
- Magna Charta
- war with the Barons

1209  

- Cambride Uni founded

1215 Magna Charta

- 1st Parliament 1265:
Simon de Montfort vs. John Lackland

1216-1272 Henry III
Simon de Montfort

- born 1207
- crowned Gloucester
- buried Westminster
- The Oxford Parliament

what's left of them?  

 

what else ?

Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday

named after TIW - the god of the battle
named after Woden - the Chief god
named after Thor - god of the thunder
named after Frey - goddess of the crops

general facts

land

 

language

- Deer Wolves, Eagles and Boar (eofor = wild boar) were very commen, i.e. Derby = village with many deer nearby, Everton = wild boar (eofor) that lived in the forest

- Norfolk = North folk, Suffolk = South folk
- worth = enclosure, farm
- ham = home, village
- ton = town, village, farm
- ing = place of a family
- ford = river crossing
- chipping = market (to sell is 'chipping')
- by = village
- thorpe = small village
- burh = fortified town

The Middle Ages (1272 - 1485)

Date

Who ...

... did what?

1272-1307 Edward I "Hammer of the Scots"

- born 1239
- crowned Westminster
- buried Westminster
- choose John Balliol for the Scottish throne
- went North to show him (Balliol) who was boss

1283  

Conquest of Wales (Eisteddfod banned)
War in Scotland

1307-1327 Edward II

- born 1285
- crowned Westminster
- buried Gloucester
- Uprising in Scotland,
- Robert is proclaimed King od Scotland ...

1306-29




















1320


1328
Robert I, 2nd Earl of Carrick
(1253-1304 1st earl of C.)











- older brother (Robert Bruce 1210-95 desc. of a younger brother of William the Lion) des 1. Earl of Carrick transferred to him the claim of the throne (1292, when John de Balliol became King of Scots)
- supported Edward I against Balliol in1296
- in 1298 Wallace and John 'Red' Comyn replaced him as joint Guardians
- on 10th Feb. 1306 Bruce stabbed his rival Comyn in GreyFriar's Church, Dumfries > was therefore outlawed by Edward I and excommunicated by Clement V.
- Not accepting his life as a fugitive he claimed the throne as great-great-son David I and was crowned at Scone on 25 March 1306
- restoring independence to Scotland was made easier when Edward II (whose affair with Piers Gaveston consumed much of his time) replaced Edward I in 1307
- at his 1st Parliament Bruce was fortified by declarations of loyalty and started clearing the English out of Scottish castles
- 1314 only Stirling held out
- Bruce wins the Battle of Bannockburn 24th June 1314 against Edward II
- Declaration of Arbroath (Scottish declaration of independence) sent to Pope John XXII who waited 4 years before recognising the rightful King of Scotland
- 1327 Bruce harrassed the English until Edward III acknowledged his sovereignty and accepted his heirs as Scottish kings- treaty of Northampton 4th May 1328
- Bruce burried in Dunfermline Abbey
- his heart taken to the Holy Land by Sir James Dougles (killed at Granada, Spain) returned to Scotland and burried in Melrose Abbey

1327-1377






1348/49
Edward III

- born 1312
- crowned Westminster
- buried Westminster
- won sea battles against France at Sluys (1340) and Castile off Winchelsea (1350)
- defeated Scots at Halidon Hill (1333) and Neville's Cross (1345)
- greatest English battle Honours: Crécy (1346) and Poitiers (1356)
- founded the Order of the Knights of the Garter (Hosenbandorden)
- Black Death (plague) killed 1/3 popuation within 10 Jears

   

 

1337

100 Years' War between France and England began

1340 John of Gaunt

 

1346
Edward the
Black Prince




- Black Prince = son Edward III

English win battles
1) Battle of Crécy
- English Archers
- Calais taken (again in 56, 62, 69)
2) Battle near Neville's Cross (near Durham) 17th Oct 1346
- David II defeatd and captured by English forces
- thereby ending the Scots involvement in the 100 Years' War as allies of the French

1348/49



1350
 

- Order of the Garter
- (Middle) English wird Schulsprache
- Black Death
- growth of wool trade
- Old English Aliterative Revival

1353 & 93

- Statute of Praemunire (Limitation of the pope's powers over England)

1360

treaty of Brétigny (the english king gave up claiming the French throne)

1380ies
Geoffrey Chaucer
(1345-1400)

 

Canterbury Tales = 1st Middle English Literature (unfinished)

1377-99 Richard II

- born 1367
- crowned Westminster
- buried Langley, re-buried Westminster
- grandson of Edward III, son of Black Prince

1381 Wat Tyler,
John Ball

Peasants' revolt

1382 John Wyclif

- 1st complete translation of the Bible in to English

1382  

- Winchester school founded

1388 Henry Percy "Hotspur"

- Scots win battle against the English near Otterburn

1399-1413 Henry IV

- born 1367
- crowned Westminster
- buried Canterbury
- Cousin of Richard II
- forced Richie to give up the throne
- barons grew powerful
- battle of Shrewsbury
- leading rebels' names thanks to Shakespeare:
Owen Glyndowr & Henry Percy (Harry Hotspur)

1413-22 Henry V

- son of Henry IV
- born 1387
- crowned Westminster
- buried Westminster

1415

Battle of Agincourt 25th Oct 1415,
- Henry V with archers and disciplined soldiers wins against the French >> 6000 (d.:1600) : 20.000 (d.:6000)

1422-61 +70/71


1435
1440
1445

1450
1451

Henry VI

 

- son of Henry V
- born 1421
- crowned Westminster
- buried Chertsey (murdered in Tower), re-buried Windsor
- change of alliances in the continent
- Eton founded
- Henry marries Margaret of Anjou

- Normandy lost
- Gascony lost

1453

- 100 Years War ends with loss of France
- Battle of Castillion (Dordonnie)- France kills John Talbot = fam. brit. General

1455

- War of the Roses begins between Lancastrians (Henry VI) and Yorkists (Richard, Duke of York)

 
Jeanne d'Arc
(6.1.1412-30.5.1431

- Joan of Arc = Jungfrau von Orléans (1429 Orleans befreit)
- peasant's daughter from Lothringen
- Während des 100jährigen Kieges stellt sie sich im Glauben an eine göttliche Berufung an die Spitze einer nationalen Streitmacht und erringt eine Reihe von Siegen gegen die Engländer
- forced the crowning of Karl VII in Reims
- durch Verrat an die Engländer gefallen
- von kirchlich frz. Gericht der Ketzerei beschuldigt, als Hexe verbrannt, 1456 rehabilitiert, 1920 heilig gesprochen

1461-83 Edward IV

- born 1441
- crowned Westminster
- buried Windsor
- Cousin of Henry VI
- triumph of the Yorkists

1466  

- Merchant Adventures founded (?)

1477
William Caxton
1455

- England's 1st printed Book
- produced nearly 100 titles before his death in 1491
- Johannes Gensfleisch zum Gutenberg (1394/9-1468)
- Gutenberg bible (in Mainz)

1483 Edward V

- son of Edward IV
- born 1470
- never crowned
- murdered (with brother Richard) in the Tower

1483-85
1485
Richard III

- uncle of Edward V
- born 1452
- crowned Westminster
- buried Leicester
- controverse ruler: bloodstained mosnter, tragically maligned, prototype of a Renaissance ruler
- 1483 revolt checked
- 1485 Battle of Bosworth, Leicestershire (Richard III = last Plantagenet fell fighting)
- crown passed on to Henry Tudor (earl of Richmond) on the battlefield by Lord Stanley (who picked it from a Hawthorne bush :-)

what's left of them?  

 

The Tudors (1485 - 1603)

Date

Who ...

... did what?

1485-1509 Henry VII
(Tudor, earl of Richmond)

- born 1457
- crowned Westminster
- buried Westminster
- 1485 Battle of Bosworth (wars of the Roses)

1509-1547







1536
Henry VIII

1) Catherine of Aragon
(Mary I) divorced
2) Anne Boleyn (Elizabeth I) executed
3) Jane Seymour (Edward VI) died
4) Anne of Cleves divorced
5) Catherine Howard executed
6) Catherine Parr outlived him

- born 1491
- crowned Westminster
- buried Windsor
- 1534 Parliament declares Henry Head of the Church of England
- Begin of the dissolution of the monasteries
- finally slammed the door of the Middle Ages

- War with France and Scotland
- Act of Union (with Wales)

1541

 

- Ireland to Britain

1549

 

- Norfolk rising against enclosures

 

Cardinal Wolsley

Sir Thomas More

 

1547-1553 Edward VI

- born 1537
- crowned Westminster
- buried Westminster
- English Prayer Book introduced

1555  

- Moscow Company founded

1553-1558 Mary I = 'Bloody Mary' (strong Catholic )

- born 1516
- crowned Westminster
- buried Westminster
- Protestant Lady Jane Grey queen for 9 days (arrested and executed)
- Persecution of Protestants (Bishops Ridley and Latimer and 300 )
- Alliance with Spain (married Phillip II)
- 1558 Loss of Calais to French army

1558-1603




1559

Elizabeth I
= 'Good Queen Bess' (Protestant)


Lord Burleigh
Drake, Raleigh

- born 1533
- crowned Westminster
- buried Westminster
- Mary Queen of Scots flees to England
- Catholics plot against Elizabeth
- Church of England established


- English Ships attack Spannish treasure ships (Drake, Raleigh, Cavendish, ...)
- 1587 Mary executed
- 1588 Armada defeated
- war in Ireland
- Poor Laws passed

1566  

- London Stock Exchange

1572  

- Poor Rate introduced

1577 Francis Drake

- sails round the world

  Mary Stuart - Queen of Scots

- cousin to Elizabeth
- daughter of King James V of Scotland and         Henry VIII elder sister
- rival to the Throne
- heir of the throne if Elizabeth
- married 1558 Francis II, Dauphin of France
- married Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley 1567
- married James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell 1567
- died without having children
- M. fled to E. in 1568 after the rebellion of the Scottish lords
- for 19 Years imprisoned in various castles (Loch Leven, ..)
- became foolishly involved in plots against E. 
- with this being proven executed at Fotheringay Castle in 1587

1564-1616
William Shakespeare
John Donne
Ben Johnson
Sir Francis Bacon

 

1600  

- East India Company founded

The Stuarts (1603 - 1714)

Date

Who ...

... did what?

1603-1625 James I of England =
James IV of Scotland

- son of Mary queen of Scots
- born 1566
- crowned Westminster
- buried Westminster
- well educated, clever, but unpopular with his Scottish accent, clumsy: fell down at his own coronation
- quarrels with Parliament
- wrote a book against smoking
- 1607 Union with Scotland rejected by the English
- repeal uf mutually hostile laws
- reluctantla flown Union Jack, 1634 withdrawn
- 2 independent parliaments remained

  Robert Hooke

- invention of the microscope

   

- Settlement in Viriginia

1611  

- King James Bible, translation ordered by the King

1605 Guy Fawkes

Gunpowder Plot:
- Roman Catholics were angry because James had ordered all Catholic Priests to leave the Country
- so they plotted to blow up Parliament when all were there (King, Queen, Church leaders, Protestant nobles)
- historians suspect the king's minister Robert Cecil to have known about the plot
- Nov 5th 1605 a Catholic soldier was arrested in a cellar under the House of Lords carrying matches, 36 barrels gunpowder, more plotters were arrested later, they were tortured to confess with a shaky signature, hung, drawn and quartered

1620 Pilgrim Fathers

- like the Catholics they were forbidden to worship as they wished
- 100 men, women and children sailed 67 stormy days across the Atlantic on the Mayflower to set up a new home in New Plymouth, North America, and kearned farming from the local Indians
- 1/2 of them died during the hard winter, the rest survived and began building a town and farms

1628 William Harvey

- wrote a book about how the heart functions as a blood pump ... people thought he was mad

1625-1649

1640
1642



1642
1645
1646


Jan. 1649

Charles I (French Catholic wife Henrietta Maria)









John Bradshaw = president of court

- born 1600
- crowned Westminster
- buried Windsor
- attempt to rule without Parliament 1629-40
- Quarrels with Parliament, believed he was King by god's will
- money needed to fight the Scots > Parliament (under John Pym) passed laws to control the King
- Civil War (King's landowning Cavaliers from the North and West vs Parlamentarian Protestant Roundheads from the cities, Puritans and all who hated taxes)
- attempted arrest of 5 leading Parliamentarians > escaped
- Battle of Naseby (Cromwell/Parliament crushed King's men)
- Charles I captured
- pro king MPs driven out of Parliament, king's trial prepared by the others
- Execution of Charles I

1650


Oliver Cromwell = Lord Protector

- Britain became a republic > called: Commenwealth
- life was shaped by the Puritan who passed laws against swearing, playing cards, ... inns and theatres closed, no work on Sundays, Christmas dinner forbidden
- New Model Army
- Conquest of Ireland
- War against Dutch
- Parliament dismissed 1653
- War with Spain
- earned £100,000

1658-59 Richard Cromwell =
Lord Protector

- Richard quickly overthrown by General Monck and the army - General Monck asked Charles II to return

1660  

- Restauration

1660-1685



1662
Charles II





- born 1630
- crowned Scone 1651 and Westminster 1661
- burried Westminster
- the merry monarch, son of Charles I
- very popular, dancing, balls, theatre, banquets, ...
- founded the Royal Society for scientific exchange of knowledge
- Parliament granted him no taxes, he turned to French King Louis XIV (= Sonnenkönig) who gave him money in exchange for promissing to bring back Catholicism (which he did not)

1665
 

- Great Plague killed 60,000 people
- Great Fire of London 1666 (baker's shop in Pudding Lane)

  Isaac Newton

- discovery of gravitation

  Nell Gwyn

 

  Samuel Pepys

 

1685-1689 James II

- born 1633
- crowned Westminster
- buried St Germain
- brother of Charles II
- Catholics given important positions in army and government
- Protestants worried about a new line of Catholic Kings (James had a son), so they invited Mary (James' Protestandt daughter) and William of Orange (Oranien)
- James flees, throwing the Great Seal in the Thames

1685 Duke of Monmouth

- Protestant rebels were defeated at the battle of Sedgemore
- Judge Jeffreys condemned 200 to be hanged and 800 to be sold as slaves > ('Bloody Assizes')
- Monmouth was executed

1689-1702



1689

1690
1694
1694

William & Mary

- born 1650/1662
- both crowned Westminster
- both buried Westminster
- W.: Dutch Protestant leader
- M.: Protestant daughter of James II
- Bill of Rights: toleration Act
- Immigration of Hugenotts
- Battle of Boyne
- Bank of England founded
- Mary dies

1702-1714 Queen Anne

- born 1665
- crowned Westminster
- buried Westminster
- 2nd daughter of James II
- war with France
- British victories at Blenheim and Ramilies
- British Parliament started to devide into Whigs & Tories

  John Churchill,
Duke of Marlborogh

 

1707  

Act of Union (with Scotland)

what's left of them? during Charles II reign

- coffee houses became popular with scholars and merchants to discuss business
- chocolate and expensive tea from India introduced

  Matthew Hopkins = Witch Finder General

witchcraft, trials

what's left of them?  

 

The Georgians (1714 - 1830)

Date

Who ...

... did what?

1714-1727 George I

- born 1660
- crowned Westminster
- died 1727
- buried Hannover
- heir to throne due to 1701 Act of Settlement > nearest Protestant in line (great grandson of James I), wholly German in language and culture and preferences, but apart from a Scottish pro Stuart revolt in 1715 he imposed new hardship on his new subjects
- introduced in effect the office of the prime minister by entrusting his interests to a chosen minister who had to be able to undertake to deliver a favourable Parliamentory vote on the matter of the royal salary

1721 Robert Walpole,
(1676-1845)
earl of Orford

- 1st Prime Minister (1715-17/1721-42)
- Whig-leader
- influencial Chancellor of the Exchecker

1727-1760 George II

- born 1683
- crowned Westminster
- buried Westminster
- courageous and last King to lead troops into battle at Dettingen in 1743 defeating the French

1756-63  

- 7 years war

1760-1820




1783
George III
'Farmer George'


- born 1738
- crowned Westminster
- buried Windsor
- English King unlike 2 predecessors
- worked hard at the problems of the French and American revolutions
- loss of American colonies 1783 Treaty of Versailles
> was unrightfully blamed on him
- 1793 war with France
> G became symbol of national pride
- increasing illness for the last 10 years of his reign
> tragically insane

175X++
1766
1769
1776
1783
1785
1789-95
1793
1799
1801
1805
1807
1815
1819
1824
1825
1830


Hargraves
Watt
USA
USA/Brit.





- Industrial Revolution begins
- Spinning Jenny
- Steam Engine
- declaration of Independence
- Independence of USA officially recognized
- The Times founded
- French Revolution
- War with France
- Combination Act
- Act of Union (with Ireland)
- Battle of Trafalgar
- slave trade ended
- Battle of Waterloo (Napoleon)
- Peterloo
- repeal of Combination Act
- Stockton-Darlington Railway
- Manchester-Liverpool Railway

  William Pitt the Younger

- more reliable than George's trusted ministers Bute & North

1820-1830 George IV

- born 1962
- crowned Westmisnter
- buried Windsor
- son of George III
- acted as Regent during his father's illness
- eroded all his father's achievements

1834
1840-42
1842
1846
1847
1856
1856-58
1857-58
1857-59
1861-65




- Poor Law Act
- 1st Opium war with China
- Coal Mines Act
- Repeal of Corn Laws
- 10 h Act
- Crimean War
- 2nd Opium war with China
- economic crisis
- revolt in India
- American Civil War


1867
1883
1882
1884
1886
1898
1902
1910
1911
1914
1919
1921








- 2nd Reform Act
- Great Depression began
- Egypt occupied
- 3rd Reform Act
- Home Rule Bill
- Sudan annexed
- Education Act
- Old Age Pension introduced
- Payment for MPs
- WW II began
- Treaty of Versailles (End off WW II)
- Ireland devided > Free State of Ireland founded

what's left of them?  

 

The Victorians (1830 - 1901)

Date

Who ...

... did what?

   

 

1830-1837 William IV

'Sailor King'
or 'Silly Billy'

- born 1765
- crowned Westminster
- buried Windsor
- served in the Navy
- shortcomings of tact, judgement and intellect
- 1790-1811 lived in regularf if unmarried bliss with actress Jordan (10 children)
- 1818 married German Princes for dynastic reasons (2 sickly daughters, both died early)
- obstructionist politics
- 1832 grudging acceptance of Reform Act
- Monarchy was having difficulties with coming to terms with the pressures of the early modern age

1837-1901 Victoria

- born 1819
- crowned Westminster
- married German Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (who died early in 1861)
- buried Frogmore
- after her 2 predecessors she rescued Monarchy from a low point where Kings were expected only to reign, not to rule anymore
- from restauration of respect and usefulness she went further to becoming the incarnate spirit of the - at that time - predominantly middle class nation by representing and living the typical values and qualities her subjects valued so much
- became loved and idolized as Elizabeth I had been
- reigned over an ever expanding empire ...

Modern Times (1901 - World War II)

Date

Who ...

... did what?

1901-1910 Edward VII

- born 1841
- crowned Westminster
- buried Windsor
- prolonged apprenticeship
- talent of stateliness
- ruled the greatest empire
- genuine enablingen role in the diplomacy that led to the construction of the Triple Entente of England, France and Spain

1910-1936 George V

- born 1865
- second son of Edward VII (the 1st son died aged 28)
- crowned Westminster
- buried Windsor
- brought up in Victorian tradition, never faltered in his devotion to duty
- reign dominated by World War II
- haunted by the death of his cousin Nicholas, Tsar of Russia
- during the 20s abd 30s the Crown stoofd for continuity and stability
- he was an institutional monarch

1936 Edward VIII

- born 1894
- eldest son of George V
- uncrowned
- buried Frogmore
- charming, easily moved, emotional, informal and approachable
- lacked steadiness, strength of will, sense of duty
- as Prince of Wales he showed concern for the plight of the poor and unemployed
- renounced his kingship, abdicated before marrying American divorcée Wallis Simpson
- subsequently created Duke of Windsor
- served as Governor of the Bahamas during the war
- spent rest of his life in Paris
- died 1972

1936-1952 Georg VI

- born 1895
- Duke of York, second son of George V
- crowned Westminster
- buried Windsor
- never expected nor wished to succeed to the throne
- his broter's abdication cast a heavy burden
- suffered from a speech impedimant
- but never lacked bravery or enterprise
- fought as a naval officer at Jutland
- first member of teh Royal Family to learn to fly
- strong sense of duty
- fortified by his immensely popular Queen who helped to restore the confidence in the monarchy
- King George and Queen Elizabeth stayed in London during the war showing love and care for their peole
- their daughters served in uniform and the identification of the Royals with the will of the nation was complete
- caused by the enormous effort and a fading health George died eary and suddenly in the winter 1952

Elizabeth II

Date

Who ...

... did what?

1952 ++ Elizabeth II

- born 1926
- crowned Westminster
- romantic marriage to Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (20.11.1947)
- after the devastation of World War II the accession of a young beautiful queen fueled the hopes of a new golden age
- not easy for for Britain to accept the loss of the empire
- even harder to adjust to the harsh economic realities
- steady growth of affection and respect of her people

- 1st heir to the throne: Prince Charles *14.11.1948, Prince of Wales married Lady Diana Spencer (29.7.1981), liason with Camilla Parker after the death of Princes Diana
- tragic death of Lady Diana during an attempt of escape from journalists by car and a fatal accident following a wild chase through the streets of Paris; world in mourning
- two sons William *21.6.1982 & Henry *15.9.1984
- Henry = most likely heir to the throne

Aug. 4th 2000  

- Queen mum's 100'th birthday
- Queen mum died shortly afterwards


primary sources:
- Parker, Michael, St John: Britain's Kings and Queens
- Bold, Alan: Scotland's Kings and Queens
- Lewis, Brenda Ralph: Kings and Queens I & II
- Wood, Tim: The Romans
- Wood, Tim: The Saxons and the Normans
- Wood, Tim: The Middle Ages
- Wood, Tim: The Tudors
- Wood, Tim: The Stuarts

secondary sources:
- lecture scripts from the 1990s, University of Leipzig, University of St. Andrews, Bradford and Ilkley Community College
- Ross, Stewart: Monarchs of Scotland
- The Brockhampton Dictionary of British Kings and Queens
- Kenyon, J.P.: The Wordsworth Dictionary of British History